Malerkotla district was carved out of Sangrur as the 23rd district of Punjab on 02 June, 2021. District Malerkotla is divided into three subdivisions Malerkotla, Amargarh and Ahmedgarh. Malerkotla district has a population of 429,754 as per the 2011 census report. The density of population in Malerkotla is 837 persons per square kilometer.
Malerkotla is one of the five districts in Patiala Division. The district takes its name from the princely state of Maler Kotla that existed under the British Raj. It was later on merged with other nearby princely states to create the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Subsequently it became a Tehsil of Sangrur District when PEPSU was merged with Punjab. It is bounded by Ludhiana district in the north, by Barnala district in the west, by Patiala district in the east and by Sangrur district in the south. The headquarters of the District is located at Malerkotla City. Malerkotla city is situated 40 km from Ludhiana, 45 km from Khanna, 35 km from Sangrur and 55 km from Jagraon. The city is situated on NH 11 and on secondary Ludhiana-Delhi railway line. Malerkotla is famous for its poets and monuments. It is a major supplier of vegetables to this part of Punjab. It is also known for its artisans who are famous for making hand embroidered badges, insignias and such, for the armed forces. It is also known for its metal industry and also for the manufacture of agricultural machinery.
The climate of the district is the same as the rest of Punjab which is on the whole dry and is characterized by a short monsoon, a hot summer and a bracing cold winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from November to March is followed by the hot season lasting up to the end of June. The period from July to mid-September constitutes the rainy season brought about by the south-west monsoons, the second half of September and October may be termed the post-monsoon or transition period.
Temperature starts rising from middle of February and from about the beginning of March increase rapidly till June which is generally the hottest month. The mean daily maximums temperature during June is around 104F(40C) and the mean daily minimum is around 80.6F (27C). The heat is intense in summer. On individual days, the day temperature may occasionally exceed 116F (47C) or 118.4F(48C). Scorching dust laden winds which blow during the hot season render the weather very trying of humans and animals alike. Afternoon thundershowers which occur on some days bring some relief although temporarily. With the onset of monsoon by the end of or the beginning of July, there is a general drop in the day temperatures but nights continue to be as warm as in June. Due to increased humidity in the monsoon the weather is oppressive in between the rains. At the end of rainy season, by the middle of September, there is a decrease in temperature, the drop in the night temperatures being more rapid. After October, both day and night temperatures decrease rapidly. January is usually the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at about 68F (20″C) and the mean daily minimum at about 56.6F (7C). In winter, particularly in January and February, cold waves in the wake of passing western disturbances affect the district and the minimum temperature occasionally drops down below freezing . On such occasions frosts are likely in the district.
During the south-west monsoon, season July to September the relative humidity is high, being 75 to 80 per cent in the mornings and about 55 to 65 per cent in the afternoons. High humidity of more than 70 per cent also prevail during the winter months, December to February. It is comparatively drier during rest of the year. April and May are the driest period of the year when in the afternoons the relative humidity is 25 per cent or less.